As part of our research and designing a draft model, we embarked on a list of information carriers, or media types, likely to be found in education and training context. As we are looking to establish and validate a pragmatic approach to disinformation, it would be helpful to understand what are the most likely carriers/vehicles/media where disinformation can exist and live. The long list of carriers which have been grouped by their dominant property.

Traditional print & airwaves (traditional only, excludes digital versions of the content)

  1. Newspapers and magazines
  2. Posters and leaflets
  3. Radiostations
  4. Books, handbooks (print)

Digital: D-social media

  1. Social media general feeds (posts, tweets, publications)
  2. Social media open discussion groups
  3. Social media closed discussion groups
  4. Video clips on social video-sharing platforms

Digital: D-Other

  1. General news/magazines outlets
  2. Peer-reviewed magazines
  3. Science/research publications
  4. Science/research publications repositories (paywalled)
  5. Public institutions’ websites (articles, video, data)
  6. Supra-national organisations (e.g. UN, EU, OECD…)
  7. Government and government agencies’ websites
  8. Private organisations’ websites (articles, video, data)
  9. Personal websites (blogs, vlogs)
  10. Encyclopedias and knowledge repositories (encyclopaedias, dictionaries, Wikipedia)
  11. Professional discussion groups
  12. Soundbites (podcasts on podcasts repositories)
  13. Specialised educational websites (video lessons, etc.)

Digital: D-Edu (suggested category, in present graphs these items are under B2. D-Other)

  1. Learning management systems and digital learning platforms hosted by the immediate training institution
  2. Handbooks (digital)
  3. School papers/written assignments sharing websites
  4. Informal school papers exchange arrangements (within closed school/class groups)
  5. Dedicated university research repositories (open access)


  1. Rumours and gossip
  2. Family-sourced information and inter-generational exchange
  3. Personal/informal circles’ gossip
  4. Professional circles’ gossip

How it relates to disinformation?

These information carriers have been put in a matrix format below. Please note that we have been discussing and have still not decided how appropriate it would be to add another digital category B3 (D-Edu) containing the immediate (from the learner point of view) learning management system (LMS) or digital learning platform belonging to their training institution. Currently these carrier types are classified under Digital: Other (D-Other).

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Other related resources from our collection

Suggested use in training