This item is about the level of elaboration and detail of the information item. It is a slightly different aspect from the rest of the column. We believe this is an aspect which is both meaningful and potentially relevant to the development of detection algorithms. It refers to information item properties such as the content complexity/elaboration, whether it is a single, isolated statement, fact, number, or whether there are many additional layers created to support the dis-informative claim. The rationale is that the more elaborate a piece of disinformation is, the more likely there is (1) a large number of originating agents (organised/coordinated) and/or (2) there are bigger vested interests in the disinformation effort.

However, this item differs slightly in nature from the rest of the list. It might be equally -- if not more -- practical to consider it in the light of the Eggshell model, and its suggestive list of questions related to the critical evaluation of a given information item (IO1-F. Eggshell model: establishing information credibility), and the related fact-checking and source-checking.

There is a comprehensive study by Matthew Hindman of the George Washington University released in October 2018 which exemplifies how complex manipulation and disinformation operations are carried on Twitter. (EN)

The study is focused on the US 2016 elections campaign and post-election period. It is a long read, but we highly recommend it!

How it relates to disinformation?

This aspect of the De facto Framework highlights important characteristics of disinformation: the level of detail and the complexity of disinformation and the level of coordination and number of sources from which it originates.